Oak Island

[From Wikipedia] Oak Island is a 57-hectare (140-acre) privately owned island in Lunenburg County on the south shore of Nova Scotia, Canada. The tree-covered island is one of about 360 small islands in Mahone Bay and rises to a maximum of 11 metres (36 feet) above sea level. The island is located 200 metres (660 feet) from shore and connected to the mainland by a causeway and gate. The nearest community is the rural community of Western Shore which faces the island, while the nearest village is Chester. The island is best known for various theories about possible buried treasure or historical artifacts, and the associated exploration.

Oak Island has been a subject for treasure hunters ever since the late 1700s, with rumours that Captain Kidd‘s treasure was buried there. While there is little evidence to support what went on during the early excavations, stories began to be published and documented as early as 1856. Since that time there have been many theories that extend beyond that of Captain Kidd which include among others religious artifacts, manuscripts, and Marie Antoinette‘s jewels. The “treasure” has also been prone to criticism by those who have dismissed search areas as natural phenomena.[21] Areas of interest on the island with regard to treasure hunters include a location known as the “Money Pit”, which is allegedly the original searchers’ spot. There is also a formation of boulders called “Nolan’s Cross”, named after a former treasure hunter with a theory on it, and a triangle-shaped swamp. Lastly, there has been searcher activity on a beach at a place called “Smith’s Cove”. Various objects including non-native coconut fibre have been found there.[14] More recent archaeological discoveries in the ‘Smith’s Cove” area have included an allegedly pre-15th century lead cross and various wooden earthworks.[22][23]

More than fifty books have been published recounting the island’s history and exploring competing theories.[24] Several works of fiction have also been based upon the Money Pit, including The Money Pit MysteryRiptideThe Hand of Robin Squires, and Betrayed: The Legend of Oak Island. In January 2014, the History Channel began airing a reality TV show called The Curse of Oak Island about a group of modern treasure hunters. These hunters include brothers Rick and Marty Lagina of the “Michigan Group”.[25][26][27] The series has documented finds such as centuries-old coins, an antique brooch, and a lead cross that was allegedly made between 1200 and 1600 A.D.[28]

Hand Sanitizer

[From thejakartapost.com]  Since the outbreak of COVID-19, sales of hand sanitizers have soared. It’s become such a sought-after product that pharmacies and supermarkets have started limiting the number that people can buy at one time. New York state has even announced it will start producing its own hand sanitizer to meet demand. Though hand sanitizers can help reduce our risk of catching certain infections, not all hand sanitizers are equally effective against coronavirus.

As with other viral respiratory infections – like the common cold and flu – the novel coronavirus (called SARS-CoV-2) is mainly spread when virus-laden droplets from a person’s mouth or nose are transferred to other people. However, a recent study has suggested that it can also spread through faeces.
Aside from inhaling droplets, you can also get respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-2 by touching anything contaminated with the virus and then touching your face, in particular your mouth or nose. We touch our faces a lot without even realising it. A study from New South Wales found that people touch their faces about 23 times an hour
Washing with warm water and soap remains the gold standard for hand hygiene and preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Washing with warm water (not cold water) and soap removes oils from our hands that can harbour microbes.
But hand sanitizers can also protect against disease-causing microbes, especially in situations when soap and water aren’t available. They’re also proven to be effective in reducing the number and type of microbes.
There are two main types of hand sanitizers: alcohol-based and alcohol-free. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers contain varying amounts and types of alcohol, often between 60 percent and 95 percent and usually isopropyl alcohol, ethanol (ethyl alcohol) or n-propanol. Alcohol is known to be able to kill most germs.
Alcohol-free hand sanitizers contain something called quarternary ammonium compounds (usually benzalkonium chloride) instead of alcohol. These can reduce microbes but are less effective than alcohol.
Not only are alcohol-based hand sanitizers found to be effective at killing many types of bacteria, including MRSA and E coli, they’re also effective against many viruses, including the influenza A virusrhinovirushepatitis A virusHIV, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).
Destroying viruses
Alcohol attacks and destroys the envelope protein that surrounds some viruses, including coronaviruses. This protein is vital for a virus’s survival and multiplication. But a hand sanitizer needs to be at least 60% alcohol in order to kill most viruses.
Hand sanitizers with less than 60 percent alcohol were also found to be less effective at killing bacteria and fungi and may only reduce the growth of germs rather than killing them outright.
And even hand sanitizers containing 60 percent alcohol can’t remove all types of germs. Studies have found that hand washing is more effective than hand sanitisers at removing norovirusCryptosporidium (a parasite that can cause diarrhea), and Clostridium difficile (bacteria which cause bowel problems and diarrhea).
With shortages leading some people to try and make their own hand sanitizers, it’s also important to know these might not be as effective as commercially available products.
 If hands are visibly dirty, hand washing with soap and water is more effective than using alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Research has found that the detergent effect of soap and the friction of washing work together to reduce the number of microbes on our hands, as well as the dirt and organic materials.
Sneezing or coughing into your hands also requires more than just a pump of hand sanitizer to disinfect them. This is because if your hands are contaminated with mucous, the hand sanitizer might not work as well because mucous acts to protect microbes.
As a result, the best and most consistent way of preventing the spread of the coronavirus – and reducing your risk of contracting it – remains washing your hands with soap and water as a first choice, and avoiding touching your face as much as possible.
But alcohol-based hand sanitizers (with at least 60 percent alcohol) are a practical alternative when soap and water aren’t available. If you are using hand sanitizer then, just like when washing with soap and water, you need to make sure you cover your hands (including between your knuckles, wrists, palms, back of your hand and your fingernails) fully, rubbing it in for at least 20 seconds so it’s truly effective.

Manal Mohammed, Lecturer, Medical Microbiology, University of Westminster
This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

Hawaii 5-0 Ends

I started watching at Episode one in 2010, ten years ago, just to give it a try since I never missed the original episodes when they first aired in 1968. I found the show very good and continued to watch, even through the cast changes, not missing an episode for the 10 years. I didn’t even realize that I was watching the final episode until the next day. They left it feasible that this was a season ending episode and I was ready to start the next year. I give the complete series 4.3 out of 5 stars.
(From Deadline.comCBS’ Hawaii Five-0 will be coming to an end. The popular action crime drama series will wrap its 10-year, 240-episode run with a two-hour series finale on Friday, April 4th.
Developed by Peter M. Lenkov, Alex Kurtzman and Roberto Orci as a reimagining of Leonard Freeman’s classic series and shawrun by Lenkov for the show’s entire run, Hawaii Five-0 has been a strong profit generator for CBS. In addition to its solid ratings performance, initially on Monday, and as a Friday anchor for the past seven seasons, Hawaii Five-0 has been a big international seller for CBS TV Studios, seen in more than 200 countries. Additionally, it was the last broadcast drama series to score a blockbuster off-network deal, landing $2 million an episode from TNT during its first season on CBS.

“It’s never easy to say goodbye to a hit franchise that carried on the legacy of the original with such distinction while establishing its own signature style,” said Kelly Kahl, President, CBS Entertainment. “From episode one, Hawaii Five-0 has been a huge success for us. Thanks to the amazing talents of the producers, writers, cast and crew, it has played a key role for a decade on our schedule and helped establish our powerhouse Friday night. We cannot be prouder of its quality, longevity and are thankful for the passionate fan-devotion it inspired.”
Hawaii Five-0 will end its run with its original stars Alex O’Loughlin as McGarrett and Scott Caan as Danno. I hear both of their current contracts are up at the end of this season. O’Loughlin suffered a serious back injury during the early seasons of the show, and has been dealing with effects from it ever since. There was speculation that he may leave the show two years ago but he stayed on after receiving stem cell treatment. I hear this time around, he felt he could not continue. I hear the network explored continuing Hawaii Five-0 with Caan’s Danno and a new partner but, ultimately, everyone decided this was the right time to end the series.
“This show has been pretty much every waking moment for the last 10 years of my life,” said O’Loughlin. “Everywhere I go on this planet, in every language, I am McGarrett to all these people. What we’ve done, what we’ve accomplished, it’s extraordinary. I can’t really put words to express my level of gratitude. I’m just glad to have been a part of this, a part of history and I’m going to miss it. And to the fans, I don’t know how to thank you guys. Thank you for following us the way you have. I’m going to miss you. Aloha.”
Launching a Hawaii Five-0 reboot had been a top priority for CBS TV Studios for more than a decade. There were multiple unsuccessful attempts with other writers and producers until Lenkov came on board, teaming with Kurtzman and Orci for the pilot. It was the first of a slew of successful reboots Lenkov has delivered for CBS and CBS TV Studios.
Hawaii Five-0 has been such a blessing to me and all of the people who have worked on this incredible show,” said Lenkov. “I truly learned the meaning of ‘ohana’ as the viewers embraced us and the people of Hawaii welcomed us with the privilege to film on their shores. I am forever indebted to the creative genius that was Leonard Freeman who gave us such a beautiful story to begin with. And my eternal gratitude to our cast, led by our hero Alex O’Loughlin, the writers, the production team, our CBS ohana, and most importantly – YOU, the fans, who allowed us to come to work with pride and made our series such a success. Mahalo.”
Hawaii Five-0 currently stars O’Loughlin, Caan, Ian Anthony Dale, Meaghan Rath, Beulah Koale, Katrina Law, Taylor Wily, Dennis Chun, Kimee Balmilero and Chi McBride.
Like most long-running series, it went through multiple cast transitions. That included the controversial exit of original co-stars Daniel Dae Kim and Grace Park after Season 7. Returning for the two-hour finale are recurring cast members James Marsters (Victor Hesse), William Sadler (John McGarrett) and Mark Dacascos (Wo Fat).
Hawaii Five-0, which consistently wins its time period, has been watched by almost 40 million viewers this season. In addition, the show has ranked in the top 15 or higher of broadcast dramas during its run. Also, Hawaii Five-0, is CBS’ most social primetime drama, generating 47 million impressions, 3.7 million engagements and 3.8 million video views, season-to-date.
“For 10 seasons, Alex, Scott and the rest of the talented Five-0 cast have brought fans exciting adventures in a spectacular tropical paradise,” said David Stapf, President, CBS Television Studios. “We specifically want to thank Peter and the incredibly talented production team for 10 years of consistently outstanding television. The drama has been a great success for the Studio and Network, and as a global franchise for our company. We’re pleased to give it a big sendoff and that viewers will have the opportunity to say goodbye to their favorite characters as the final season wraps.”
Lenkov executive produces the series with David Wolkove, Matt Wheeler, Kurtzman and Orci.