[From Wikipedia} Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed. As well as dating them this can give data for dendroclimatology, the study of climate and atmospheric conditions during different periods in history from wood.
Dendrochronology is useful for determining the precise age of samples, especially those that are too recent for radiocarbon dating, which always produces a range rather than an exact date. However, for a precise date of the death of the tree a full sample to the edge is needed, which most trimmed timber will not provide. It also gives data on the timing of events and rates of change in the environment (most prominently climate) and also in wood found in archaeology or works of art and architecture, such as old panel paintings. It is also used as a check in radiocarbon dating to calibrate radiocarbon ages.
New growth in trees occurs in a layer of cells near the bark. A tree’s growth rate changes in a predictable pattern throughout the year in response to seasonal climate changes, resulting in visible growth rings. Each ring marks a complete cycle of seasons, or one year, in the tree’s life. As of 2013, the oldest tree-ring measurements in the Northern Hemisphere are a floating sequence extending from about 12,580 to 13,900 years. Dendrochronology derives from Ancient Greek: δένδρον (dendron), meaning “tree”, χρόνος (khronos), meaning “time”, and -λογία (-logia), “the study of”.
Before the series premiered, it was met with some criticism given it followed closely on the heels of the BBC‘s modern adaptation Sherlock. After the premiere, it was picked up for a full season and later an extra two episodes. The season two premiere was partly filmed on location in London. The series has since been well received by critics, who have praised the performances, writing, novel approach to the source material, and fresh modern twist detailed throughout the show’s New York–based adaptation down to the size of the brownstone first seen in the series premiere.
On March 25, 2016, CBS renewed the series for a fifth season, which premiered on October 2, 2016. On May 13, 2017, CBS renewed the series for a sixth season. On November 29, 2017, CBS ordered an additional eight episodes bringing the sixth season total up to 21. It premiered on April 30, 2018. On May 12, 2018, CBS renewed the series for a 13 episode seventh season. On December 17, 2018, it was announced that the series would end after the seventh season.
The seventh and final season premiered on May 23, 2019 and concluded on August 15, 2019.
Criminal Minds gained critical acclaim for its characterization, pacing, atmosphere, acting, directing, and writing. It became a rating hit for CBS, regularly featuring as one of the network’s most-watched cable shows throughout its 15-year-long run. Its success has spawned a media franchise, with several spinoffs, including a South Korean adaptation and a video game. The show was renewed for its fifteenth and final season of ten episodes, which aired from January 8, 2020 to February 19, 2020.
Joker premiered at the 76th Venice International Film Festival on August 31, 2019, where it won the Golden Lion, and was released in the United States on October 4, 2019. The film polarized critics; while it was highly praised for Phoenix’s performance, the musical score, cinematography and production values, it was met with mixed reception concerning Phillips’ screenplay and direction. The film’s dark tone, portrayal of mental illness, and handling of violence divided opinion and also generated concerns of inspiring real-world violence; the movie theater where the 2012 Aurora, Colorado mass shooting occurred during a screening of The Dark Knight Rises refused to show it.Despite this, Joker became a major box office success, setting records for an October release. It has grossed over $1 billion, making it the first R-rated film to do so, the sixth-highest-grossing film of 2019, and the 31st-highest-grossing film of all time.
Joker received numerous accolades. At the 92nd Academy Awards, the film earned a leading 11 nominations, including Best Picture and Best Director, winning Best Actor for Phoenix and Best Original Score for Hildur Guðnadóttir. Phoenix and Guðnadóttir also won at the Golden Globe and BAFTA Award ceremonies.