## Constants

What Is Planck’s Constant?

What is a constant? In mathematics and science, a constant is a fixed value that remains unchanged throughout an equation, experiment, or mathematical operation. Constants are pivotal in providing stability and consistency to calculations and observations, playing a fundamental role in various fields of study.

## Cosmic Inflation

Cosmic inflation is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe, believed to have lasted from 1036 seconds to between 1033 and 1032 seconds after the Big Bang.

Inflation is a concept in cosmology that refers to a period of rapid expansion of the universe in its early stages. It is a theory proposed to explain several observed features of the universe, such as its overall homogeneity, isotropy, and the absence of certain types of relics.

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## The Four Fundamental Forces

The four fundamental forces act upon us every day, whether we realize it or not.

There are four fundamental forces at work in the universe; the strong force, the weak force, the electromagnetic force, and the gravitational force. The one we are all familiar with, the one that keeps us from floating off into space as we walk around, gravity is the weakest of the four. How can that be? Let’s see:

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## Zero

Zero – the figure or symbol 0, which in the Arabic notation for numbers stands for the absence of quantity

Zero describes nothing, like how much extra money I have. The number zero as we know it arrived in the West circa 1200, most famously delivered by Italian mathematician Fibonacci[1] (aka Leonardo of Pisa), who brought it, along with the rest of the Arabic numerals, back from his travels to North Africa.